Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system. Its aura from the earth looks dull, which is also known as the “red planet”. The planets of the solar system are of two types – “terrestrial planets” which have land and “gaseous planets” that contain the most gas. Like Earth, Planet Mars is also a terrestrial planet. Its atmosphere is sparse. The surface of the moon reminds the peaks of volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and the earth’s crust and the poles of its surface. The Second tallest mountain in our solar system, Olympus Mons is located on the planet Mars. Also, the largest canyon Valles Marineris is also located here. In addition to its geographical features, the rotational period of Planet Mars and seasonal cycles are similar to the Earth. There is a possibility of staying at this house.
By Mariner 4 in 1965, until the first Planet Mars flight, it was believed that there might be water in the liquid state on the surface of the planet. It was based on periodic information of light and dark spots, in particular, polar latitudes that look like oceans and continents, when long, black stripes have been interpreted as water irrigation canals by some observers. The presence of these straight lines could not prove later and it was believed that these lines are nothing more than an optical illusion. (Planet Mars)
There are two moons of planet Mars, Phobos, and Dimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. Mars can be seen from earth with naked eyes. Its virtual magnitude can be -2.9, and this brightness can be crossed only by Venus, Moon, and Sun, although most of the time, Jupiter appears more bright than naked eyes compared to Mars.
|Mass||6.42 x 10^23 kg|
|Orbit Period||686.971 days|
|Temperature||-153 to 20 °C|
|Orbit Distance||227,943,824 km|
|Surface gravity||3.72076 m/s2|
|Synodic period||779.96 days|
|Mean density||3.9335 g/cm3|
Like Earth, Mars has a dense metallic core covered by less dense materials. Current models suggest a core with a radius of approximately 1,794 ± 65 kilometers (1,115 ± 40 mi), consisting mainly of nickel and iron with approximately 16-17% sulfur. It is believed that this core of iron (II) sulfide contains twice as many light elements as the Earth. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle where many of the tectonic and volcanic characteristics of the planet, now in a dormant state. Along with silicon and oxygen, the most abundant elements in the crust of Mars are iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, and potassium. The average thickness of the planet’s crust is about 50 km (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 km (78 mi). The average thickness of the Earth’s crust is 40 km (25 mi). (Planet Mars)
Mars has lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago, so the solar wind directly connects to the ionosphere of Mars, due to which the atmospheric concentration is decreasing due to the scattering of atoms from the upper layer. Both Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Express have detected this amorphous atmospheric particle, which is spreading behind Mars in space. Mars is quite rare in comparison to Earth. With an average pressure of 600 Pa (0.60 kPa) at the surface level, the expansion of atmospheric pressure on the surface ranges from the average of 30 Pa (0.030 kPa) in Olympus Mons to 1,155 Pa (1 .155 kPa) in Hellas Planitia.
On its thickness, the pressure of the surface of Mars is equal to the pressure found on the surface of the earth at 35 km. This is less than 1% of the Earth’s surface pressure (101.3 kPa). The scale height of the atmosphere is approximately 10.8 km, which is above the earth (6 km) because the gravitational surface of Mars is only 38% by the gravity of the surface of the Earth, this overturn is more than 50% of the atmosphere. Mars is performed by average molecular weight and low temperature. (Planet Mars)
In the atmosphere of Mars, methane has been identified with a difference of 30 PPB. It is found in extended wings and the outline indicates that methane was released from discrete areas. In northern Middle Summer, the principal feather covers 19,000 metric tons of methane, with a powerful source of 0.6 kilograms per second. The framework suggests that there may be two local sources, near the first 30 ° north, near 260 ° west and another 0 °, 310 ° west. It is estimated that Mars produces 270 tons/year methane.
In all planets of the Solar System, due to the same rotating axial tilt, the seasons on Mars and Earth are mostly identical. The lengths of Mars’s rays are almost twice as much like the Earth, due to being relatively far away from the Sun, the year of Mars, as far as two earth-year lengths are ahead. Temperatures of the surface of Mars are also diverse, during the polar winter the temperature is about -87 °. (-125 ° F) from below -5 ° in the summer. (23 ° F) remains high. Due to extensive temperature expansion, low atmospheric pressure, low thermal inertia and thin atmospheres, which can not store much solar heat. This planet is 1.52 times more distant than the Sun compared to Earth, resulting in only 43% of the amount of sunlight available. (Planet Mars)
If Mars had an Earth-like orbit, then its seasons would also have been Earth-like because the axial tilt of both the planets is almost identical. Comparatively, the large orbital concentration of Mars has a significant effect. Mars is near the vicinity, then in the southern hemisphere summer and in the north there is cold and near adjacent, then in the southern hemisphere winter and north is warm.
On Mars, the largest dust storm in our solar system. It can be for diversity, from small parts to such a massive storm that covers the entire planet. The threshold is found when the Sun is near and the growth of the global temperature has been shown.
Gravity is less than Earth on Mars, it is considered to be 1/6.
Orbiting and rotating
The average distance from the Sun of Mars is about 23 crores (1.5 b) and the orbital period is 687 (Earth). A solar day on Mars is slightly longer than Earth Day: 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds. One Mars year 1.880 9 is equivalent to Earth year or 1 year, 320 days and 18.2 hours.
The axial tilt of Mars is 25.19 degrees, which is equal to the axial tilt of the Earth. As a result, Mars’s seasons are similar to Earth, although on Mars these seasons are twice as long on Earth. At present, the position of the North Pole of Mars is close to the Daneb Star. Mars passed away in March 2010 and from his presence in March 2011. The next Upsor will be in February 2012 and the next sub-site will be in January 2013.
Mars is a relatively clear orbital concentration of 0.09, only in the seven other planets of the solar system, Mercury exhibits greater concentration. It is known that in the past, Mars’s orbit was more circular than the present. For the last 35,000 years, Mars’s orbit has been getting more and more decentralization due to the gravitational influence of other planets. The nearest distance between Earth and Mars will continue with the slightest subtraction for the next 25,000 years.
The red planets are actually many colors. On the surface, we see colors like brown, gold and tan. The reason for Mars being red is due to oxidation – or iron rust in the rocks, and Mars dust. This dust is found in the atmosphere and the planets are mostly red visible from a distance.
Interestingly, while Mars is almost half the diameter of the Earth, its surface is almost the same area as the Dryland of the Earth. Dust storms such as its volcano, impact crater, crustal movement, and atmospheric conditions have changed the landscape of Mars in many years, making some of the most interesting topographic features of the solar system.
A large valley system called Valles Marineris is more than 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers) from California to New York. This Martian valley is 200 miles (320 km) in its largest location and 4.3 miles (7 kilometers) in its deepest. It is about 10 times the size of the Earth’s Grand Canyon.
Mars is home to the Solar System’s largest volcano, Olympus Mons. It is three times bigger than the Earth’s Mt. Everest is the size of New Mexico State with a base.
Today there is water on Mars, but the atmosphere of Mars is very thin for long-term liquid water to remain on the surface. Today, the water on Mars is found in the polar regions below the surface as well as in the form of water-ice in salty (salted) water, which seasonally flows through some hill and crater walls.
Planet Mars Moons
Mars has two relatively small natural moons, Phobos and Deimos, whose orbit is close to the planet. Capturing asteroid is a more supported theory but its origin remains uncertain. Both satellites were discovered by Asaph Hall in 1877 and they were named on the character Phobos (Terror / Fear) and Demos (Terror / Fear) In the battle of Greek mythology, his father was with the god of war Ares. Ares was known as Mars for the Romans.
From the surface of Mars, Phobos and demos movements look quite different from our own moon. Phobos is emerging in the west, it exists in the east and only emerges again after 11 hours. There is a very little symmetrical class outside of Deimos, meaning that its orbital period corresponds to its rotating period, as it appears in the east, but very slowly. Regardless of the 30-hour class of Dimos, it takes 2.7 days to go west, because it sinks slowly in the rotating direction of Mars, moving slowly, takes the same time again for the emergency.
Also Read:- Fact about Mars